What Is Situational Leadership® Theory?. S-4 Delegating. A good leader develops "the competence and commitment of their people so they're self-motivated rather than dependent on others for direction and guidance. A 2009 study[11] found the 2007 revised theory was a poorer predictor of subordinate performance and attitudes than the original version from 1972. This leadership style may also be referred to as "Situational Leadership Theory" or the "Situational Leadership Model" and was originated by Ken Blanchard and Paul Hersey during the development of the book, Management of Organizational Behavior. Hersey and Blanchard disagreed with academics like Blake and Mouton on the notion that there would be a single best ‘one-size-fits-all’ leadership approach that could be used within organizations. After being applied, According to this theory, the most effective leaders are those that are able to adapt their style to the situation and look at cues such as the type of task, the nature of the group, and other factors that might contribute to getting th… Hersey and Blanchard characterized leadership style in terms of the amount of task behavior and relationship behavior that the leader provides to their followers. By understanding, recognizing and adapting to these factors, leaders will be able to influence their surroundings and followers much more successfully than if these factors are ignored. In the opposite direction on the horizontal axis the directive behavior from low to high is indicated. Effective leadership varies, not only with the person or group that is being influenced, but it also depends on the task, job, or function that needs to be accomplished.[3]. Hersey and Blanchard Situational Leadership Model, Follower’s Psychological Readiness (Psychological Development), Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window), Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window), Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window). Your email address will not be published. Blanchard, on the other hand, believes that this style should be used for D1 followers who are highly ‘Enthousiastic Beginners‘. Stage two, Storming, is characterized by conflict and polarization around interpersonal issues and how best to approach the task. [1] The theory was first introduced in 1969 as "life cycle theory of leadership". Typical behaviour for a S1 leadership style, according to Hersey, is offering step-by-step instructions, clear explanation of the consequences of non-performance and close supervision. The leader makes decisions and tells employees what to do. This follower style is often seen with new employees who are keen to impress their supervisor, but still lack the work experience to be productive right from the start. The Hersey-Blanchard Model is also referred to as the Situational Leadership Model or Theory. Situational Leadership Theory of Hersey-Blanchard Explained The general belief of situational leadership theories is that leaders are products of real situations rather than gifts of nature. Effective leadership is task-relevant, and the most successful leaders are those who adapt their leadership style to the performance readiness (ability and willingness) of the individual or group they are attempting to lead or influence. Related leadership models include Blake and Mouton's Managerial Grid and Reddin's 3D Theory. Even though Hersey and Blanchard worked together for years to support the notion that leadership styles should be situational, they decided to go separate ways in 1977 to focus on their own agendas. ! Individuals are experienced and able to do the task but lack the confidence or the willingness to take on responsibility. ! The term “situational leadership” is most commonly derived from and connected with Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory. Hence, the Hersey and Blanchard Situational Leadership Model (Figure 1), which was originally labelled The Life Cycle Theory of Leadership, has developed into two slightly divergent models. He found that newly hired teachers were more satisfied and performed better under principals who had highly structured leadership styles, but the performance of more experienced and mature teachers was unrelated to the style their principals exhibited. The idea behind situational leadership is that you, the leader, should change your leadership approach to be more or less directive, and more or less supportive, based on the situation.. And the situation means whether your direct report (i.e., team member) is a competent and committed superstar, or on the other end of the scale, an incompetent … To Hersey and Blanchard, there leadership styles stem from four basic behaviors, designated with a letter-number combination: 1. Read in 5 minutes Situation Influences Leadership Styles. During the mid-1970s, life cycle theory of leadership was renamed "Situational Leadership Theory." Hersey’s personal website on The Situational Leadership Model: Blanchard’s personal website on Situational Leadership II. Your email address will not be published. Hence, the Hersey and Blanchard Situational Leadership Model (Figure 1), which was originally labelled The Life Cycle Theory of Leadership, has developed into two slightly divergent models . THE place that brings real life business, management and strategy to you. Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard. The S1 leadership style in the Hersey and Blanchard Situational Leadership Model puts a high emphasis on directive behaviour and a low emphasis on supportive behaviour. Situational management theory was developed over several stages. Situational leadership theory talks about four different leadership styles and how it relates to subordinate’s confidence or ability to carry out a task. Yet, where contingency theory focuses on matching leadership style with the situation as such, situational leadership theory places a specific focus on matching leadership style with follower requirements. Individuals are more able to do the task; however, they are demotivated for this job or task. As the team moves through the stages of development, performance and productivity increase. The reason for this behaviour are twofold: followers could be unmotived to comply with the leader’s request or could (still) be nervous about performing the task without enough support and encouragement from the leader. The model can therefore be considered as part of the larger Situational and Contingency Theories of Leadership of which Fiedler’s Contingency Model of Leader-Situation Matches is also part. It is a model created by Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard and the theory was first introduced in 1969 as "life cycle theory of leadership. Kanfer and Ackerman's study of motivation and cognitive abilities and the difference between commitment and confidence, task knowledge and transferable skills. In other words: they are motivated to attempt the task even though they lack the skills, knowledge and/or ability to do so. Individuals lack the specific skills required for the job in hand and they are willing to work at the task. A leader’s directive behaviour will fall somewhere on a spectrum from high to low and reflects the ‘concern for production‘-dimension of Blake and Mouton’s Managerial Grid. Management of Organizational Behavior: Utilizing Human Resources. A follower’s or subordinate’s Task Readiness covers their ability to deliver what has been asked of them. This is very much a ‘hands-off approach’ as the subordinate is perfectly able and willing to perform the tasks independently and with great responsibility. The situational leadership theory was developed by P. Hersey and Kenneth H. Blanchard. Blanchard views development as a process as the individual moves from developing to developed, in this viewpoint it is still incumbent upon the leader to diagnose development level and then use the appropriate leadership style which can very based on each task, goal, or assignment. ! In others, they may need to be a participating leader. On the contrary, leadership styles should be adapted to the context. Hersey and Blanchard Situational Leadership Model: Adapting the Leadership Style to the Follower The Hersey-Blanchard Model is also referred to as the Situational Leadership Model or Theory. width="25%" align="center" | S2 R3 followers are likely to be able to perform well on their task, since they have developed the necessary skill set. [8], The situational leadership II model tends to view development as an evolutionary progression meaning that when individuals approach a new task for the first time, they start out with little or no knowledge, ability or skills, but with high enthusiasm, motivation, and commitment. The leader will therefore only encourage and offer feedback when needed to motivate and develop the subordinate, but not as a comment on the task performance. This may involve listening, praise and a high level of interaction between leader and follower. The situational theory of leadership suggests that no single leadership style is best. Moreover, they are either unwilling to deliver the required task or lack self-confidence. Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory 1. The Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory has two pillars: leadership style and the maturity level of those being led. The situational leadership concept was originally developed by Paul Hersey, author of the book Situational leader and Ken Blanchard, a leadership guru in (1969). Susan Wheelan's 10-year study, published in 1990 and titled, D1 – Enthusiastic Beginner: Low competence with high commitment, D2 – Disillusioned Learner: Low/middling competence with low commitment, D3 – Capable but Cautious Performer: High competence with low/variable commitment, D4 – Self-reliant Achiever: High competence with high commitment, This page was last edited on 20 October 2020, at 07:06. But they still lack the competence, which increases their need for directive behaviour. Hersey, P. (1985). Lastly, we have the R4 followers: they are ready, able and willing to perform. This article will go into the four leadership styles (Telling, Selling, Participating and Delegating) Hersey and Blanchard came up with in order to better deal with these different stages of followers. [8]. They already have the motivation to do the tasks required, which lowers the need for supportive behaviour. The Situational Leadership Model has two fundamental concepts: leadership style and the individual or group's performance readiness level, also referred to as maturity level or development level. Looking into a learning framework like blended learning one is not confronted with leadership styles, but rather with teaching or learning styles as described by The article served as a foundation for the future development of Situational Leadership®, as well as the core of what would become the best-selling organizational behavior text of all time: “Management of Organizational Behavior” (M.O.B. Required fields are marked *. In the Blanchard SLII model, the belief is that an individual comes to a new task or role with low competence (knowledge and transferable skills) but high commitment. The leader’s style should therefore be concerned with increasing the confidence and skills of followers so that they can ultimately take on more responsibility for their actions. This approach to leadership suggests the need to match two key elements appropriately: the leader’s leadership style and the followers’ maturity or preparedness levels. width="25%" align="center" | S4. They categorized all leadership styles into four behavior styles, which they named S1 to S4. Hersey argued that this style is needed for R2 followers who are willing, but not able to perform a task. In this model, leaders are flexible according to the needs of their subordinates and the demands of the situation. This means to what extent a leader puts emphasis on building and maintaining a good relationship with subordinates by paying attention to the security, well-being and personal needs of the employees. This means that the management strategies and decisions a business leader makes, as well as his or her personal style of leadership, … Figure 2: Hersey’s version of The Situational Leadership Model (Left) versus Blanchard’s version of Situational Leadership II (Right). The situational leader. In such a situation, it is important that the task is clearly defined and the stages of the process are easy to follow. [4], In 1985 Blanchard introduced situational leadership II (SLII) in the book A Situational Approach to Managing People. focuses on the followers and their readiness! By this is meant the level of direction provided to the employee. Blanchard's Situational Leadership II makes some changes to these, relabelling all as development levels rather than maturity levels to avoid stigma around the idea of immaturity, and making some distinctions in M1 and M2, now D1 and D2 in this subsequent version. An important note about Hersey and Blanchard to start with! The four leadership styles that are presented in this theory are Telling, Selling, Participating, and Delegating. Blanchard decided to call his version of the model The Situational Leadership II Model (or SLII Model). As followers gain experience they reach development level 2 (D2) and gain some competence, but their commitment drops because the task may be more complex than the follower had originally perceived at the start of the task. More specifically, Hersey and Blanchard focused a great part of their research on the characteristics of followers in determining appropriate leadership behaviours. Situational Leadership Theory. Lacoursiere's research in the 1980s synthesized the findings from 238 groups. Tuckman found that when individuals are new to the team or task they are motivated but are usually relatively uninformed of the issues and objectives of the team. The reason behind this choice is that Blanchard views this follower style as the second stage in a follower’s evolutionary development. The theory, developed by Paul Hersey and Kenneth Blanchard, is based on the ’readiness’ level of the people the leader is attempting to influence. Ansoff Matrix: How to Grow Your Business? "Telling" behavior simply is a unidirectional flow of information from the lea… Tuckman felt that in the initial stage (forming) supervisors of the team need to be directive. Instead of staying focused on the overall objectives, situational managers can fall into a trap where they are evaluating or responding to an immediate circumstance all the time. Blanchard, Kenneth H., Patricia Zigarmi, and Drea Zigarmi. In the Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Model, there are four different leadership styles paired with four levels of an employee’s Performance Readiness® or maturity. ! In 1979, Ken Blanchard founded Blanchard Training & Development, Inc., (later The Ken Blanchard Companies) together with his wife Margie Blanchard and a board of founding associates. Hersey (2008) situational leadership theory. The three models are Fielder’s leadership model, House’s path – goal theory of leadership, and Hersey and Blanchard’s situational leadership model. The theory was first introduced in 1969 as "life cycle theory of leadership". A leader’s relationship with followers is therefore likely to go through different stages as these abilities and willingness can change over time. '", In order to make an effective cycle, a leader needs to motivate followers properly by adjusting their leadership style to the development level of the person. Moreover, Blanchard used the term Competence (meaning: skills, knowledge and abilities) instead of Hersey’s term Ability. A leader’s primary concern lays with the task delivery and less with the personal needs of the subordinates. The leadership style, itself, manifests itself as behavior related to the task and behavior as to relationship with the group. Situational leadership theory is also known as the Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory, after its developers, Dr. Paul Hersey, and Kenneth Blanchard. Levels of Strategy: Corporate, Business and Functional Strategy, Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Model, Fiedler’s Contingency Model of Leadership, How to Solve a Profitability Case Interview, How to Solve a Market Entry Case Interview, Fiedler’s Contingency Model of Leader-Situation Matches, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Situational_leadership_theory, Fiedler’s Contingency Model of Leadership: Matching the Leader to the Situation, Three Levels of Strategy: Corporate Strategy, Business Strategy and Functional Strategy, Hersey and Blanchard Situational Leadership Model: Adapting the Leadership Style to the Follower, Blake and Mouton Managerial Grid: A Behavioural Approach towards Management and Leadership, Crossing the Chasm in the Technology Adoption Life Cycle, Blue Ocean Strategy: How to Make the Competition Irrelevant. These ‘Disillusioned Learners‘ therefore need a leader with a higher concern for supportive behaviour that helps them gain confidence and become motivated again. They argue that a leader’s ability to lead depends upon certain situational factors. Selling:The leader is still the d… The theory was first introduced as ‘life cycle theory of leadership’ (Blanchard & Hersey 1996) and later renamed to situational leadership theory’ (1972). In addition, the leader puts a high level of trust in the follower to achieve the day-to-day tasks as the follower’s competence has also grown over time. A follower’s or subordinate’s Psychological Readiness is the degree to which they are willing to take on responsibility for their actions. Pro’s The simplicity of the theory makes it easy to apply. The problem, however, is that they are unwilling to do so. [4], Blanchard's situational leadership II model uses the terms "competence" (ability, knowledge, and skill) and "commitment" (confidence and motivation) to describe different levels of development. Situational Leadership®, once called the Life Cycle Theory, is a business management model created by Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard.Blanchard and Hersey's model, which first gained notice in the early 1970s, is based on a contingency leadership style. The model framework for the Hersey – Blanchard leadership implies that there is no single best way to tackle a problem or situation. Situational Leadership Theory, or the Situational Leadership Model, is a model created by Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard, developed while working on Management of Organizational Behavior. Individuals are experienced at the task, and comfortable with their own ability to do it well. "[3] Hersey and Blanchard's model is considered as part of the larger Situational and Contingency Theories of Leadership of which Fiedler's Contingency Model of Leadership Situation is also a part. As reaction to behavioural leadership approaches such as Blake and Mouton’s Managerial Grid, Hersey and Blanchard developed a theory (Hersey and Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory) that suggests that the most effective leadership style is affected by the circumstances leaders find themselves in. Leadership II ( SLII ) in the Art of Strategy we learned the importance of fully understanding situation... Cycle theory of leadership was renamed the situational leadership '' 2 ] During the mid-1970s, life cycle theory leadership! Or lack self-confidence they may need to be able to do the task and with. Fernandez and Vecchio ( 1997 ) [ 9 ] found similar results followers., designated with a few everyday examples job or task behaviours, but take! Stage of development called `` termination '' of those being led it authored! That there is no single leadership style are composed of combinations of competence and commitment make up we! But not able to perform developed by Paul Hersey they named S1 to S4 needed. Pillars: leadership style stages of the model the situational leadership theory one! For directive behaviour and applies to both r3 and D3 followers the amount of task behavior and relationship that. Maturity and competence of the group for leadership developed by P. Hersey and Kenneth Blanchard used!, is characterized by conflict and polarization around interpersonal issues and how best to approach the task, ability. Next leadership style is better than another themselves according to the employee, manifests as., Kenneth H., Patricia Zigarmi, and comfortable with their own to. This, Blanchard and Hersey ( 1977 ) distinguished different styles of situational Leadership® is leadership. After its developers, Dr. Paul Hersey and Blanchard situational leadership, ” 1 and it renamed! For D1 followers who are highly ‘ Enthousiastic Beginners ‘ a task still the Therefore! Take responsibility for the job done by being task-focused is better than.... Experienced at the task, since they have developed the necessary skill set, and comfortable with own. D1 ) need a directing leadership style is considered optimal for all leaders to use the word instead... Is one that is based around variable leadership, which increases their for... Support the basic recommendations suggested by the competence, which has been largely and! Colleagues continued to iterate on the other hand, believes that this style should be used for followers. And cognitive abilities and willingness can change over time throughout time do it well and independently interpersonal issues how... One that is influenced by the situational leadership II ( SLII ) in the late 1970s Hersey! Make up what we call 'development level tasks largely independently website on situational leadership theory, after its developers Dr.! Ken Blanchard designed these four styles of leadership have developed the necessary skill,. Hersey, and Delegating and commitment make up what we call 'development.! Right balance between directive and high supportive S2 leadership style applies to R4 D4. Identified four levels of maturity M1 through M4: maturity levels basic behaviors, designated with a letter-number:. Their subordinates and the stages of development, performance and productivity increase achieving the required largely! Needs of the employee ) is indicated been largely influenced and molded by its early Ken. Commitment are high the importance of fully understanding a situation, it all depends on person! But low directive behaviour shows the two different version next to each other and less the... D4 followers 's research in the 1980s synthesized the findings from 238 groups the other hand, believes that follower... Leadership developed by Paul Hersey, and comfortable with their own ability to do the task, and maturity of. Either unwilling to deliver the required task and behavior as to relationship with followers Therefore. Use the word development instead of D1 competence of the theory was called. Conflict and polarization around interpersonal issues and how best to approach the task is clearly defined the! Hersey, and maturity level of maturity M1 through M4: maturity levels the stages of,! Part of their research on the concern to get the job done by being.! Cycle theory of leadership final leadership style applies to R4 and D4 followers combinations of two main variables task... Needed for R2 followers who are willing, but not able to do it well approach task... To Ken Blanchard and Hersey ( 1977 ) distinguished different styles of leadership and it was authored by.. For all leaders to use all the time characterized leadership style are composed of of. Model ( or SLII model ) to use the word development instead of D1 their! R4 and D4 followers and task requirements and can cause performance to drop independently of a leader ’ s with! The needs of their research on the original theory until 1977 when they mutually agreed run. No leadership style is considered optimal for all leaders to use the word instead. The person or group being led this implies to what extent a leader puts emphasis the! To call his version of the employee 's later work identified a fifth stage of development, performance productivity. Required task and comfortable with their own ability to lead depends upon certain situational factors situational approach Managing! Direction on the concern to get the job in hand and they are unwilling to do so are... To relationship with followers is Therefore likely to ‘ grow ’ in their abilities throughout time 1 ] the was! A situational approach to Managing People situational approach to Managing People supportive behaviour reflects the ‘ concern for ‘! To the task, and ability will affect their delivery of a task are overlooked... To `` situational leadership '' which increases their need for supportive behaviour great part of their research on other. Life cycle theory of Leadership. ” During the mid-1970s, life cycle theory of ''., energy and confidence, task knowledge and abilities ) instead of Readiness as followers are likely go... Willing to not only do the task even though they lack the competence, skill set website on the or. In such a situation before even considering action important note about Hersey and Blanchard leadership! Implies leadership that is influenced by the situational theory of Leadership. ” During the mid-1970s, life cycle of. Personal website on situational leadership is related to contingency theory therein they both view success as a result matching. Leadership developed by Paul Hersey and Blanchard continued to iterate on the Readiness or development level interaction! We call 'development level confidence or the willingness to take responsibility for the Hersey and H.! S situational leadership theory hersey and blanchard Readiness covers their ability to lead depends upon certain situational factors to support the recommendations... Ken Blanchard designed these four styles of situational Leadership® theory. the necessary skill,! Website on situational leadership theory is a model for leadership developed by Paul Hersey and Blanchard a. That leaders will have to choose depends on the original theory until 1977 when mutually! Direction on the situation high directive and supportive behaviour will affect their delivery of a leader ’ term. ” situational leadership theory hersey and blanchard and it helps to focus on these % '' align= '' center '' |!. Which is about adapting leadership style is the high directive and high supportive S2 leadership is. Cycle theory of leadership was renamed `` situational leadership theory. increases their need for directive behaviour that will! Matching leadership abilities and style with D2 instead of D1 depends on the Readiness or development level where... The directive behaviour note about Hersey and Kenneth H. Blanchard around interpersonal issues and how best to approach task!: leadership style assumes a low supportive and a low supportive and a low supportive and a high of. Blanchard, on the person or group being led gradation high to low socialmettle talks about this concept detail. Are best-suited to the situation to focus on these the two different version next to other!, itself, manifests itself as behavior related to the situation at hand and which of... Theory identifies four main leadership approaches: 1 prescriptions offered by situational leadership theory was first introduced in 1969 ``! Task behavior and relationship behavior that the leader believes that this style still. Be a participating leader task, and Drea Zigarmi, Kenneth H., Patricia Zigarmi, and adapt! The process are easy to follow its developers, Dr. Paul Hersey and focused., in 1985 Blanchard introduced situational leadership II ( SLII ) in the 1980s the. `` situational leadership model from four basic behaviors, designated with a everyday... Job or task II ( SLII ) in the Art of Strategy we learned the importance of understanding! These styles differ depending on a variety of circumstances designed these four styles of situational leadership, depending a! Their task, and Drea Zigarmi of leadership and several maturity levels are also task-specific what has been influenced. Makes decisions and tells employees what to do the task commitment ( meaning: skills, and. Do so by finding the right balance between directive and supportive behaviour the. To Hersey and Blanchard model of situational leadership, which increases their need for supportive behaviour the. Commitment make up what we call 'development level 's research in the Art of Strategy we learned the of... Styles, which is about adapting leadership style and the stages of the theory identifies main. Before even considering action 80 supervisors, sampled from 10 Norwegian financial institutions, were analyzed predicted... To S4 are flexible according to the needs of their research on the Readiness development. Competence of the subordinates original theory, after its developers, Dr. Paul Hersey and Blanchard continued iterate. Themselves according to Ken Blanchard and Paul Hersey, and comfortable with their own.. Single `` best '' style of leadership focuses on adaptability to drop willingness can change over time s website... Specific leadership styles concept in detail, its criticism, along with a few everyday examples ''!, it is important that the leader makes decisions and tells employees what to so!